This is one of the major issues with a projection of a globe onto a cylinder area. w=window.innerWidth; Dabei werden innerhalb des Zylinders liegende Urbilder in Umfangsrichtung umso stärker vergrößert, je näher sie an der Achse liegen, außerhalb liegende werden verkleinert. It is in fact impossible to show the poles on a Mercator map — they are infinitely far away. The Mercator projection vastly exaggerates aged imperialist power, at the expense of developing countries and continents like Africa that are shrunk to inferiority. Projection Informations : Central Cylindrical Mercator; Creator: Unknown (1850 approx.) As it shows, Greenland is the country that has the largest percent difference between its apparent size in a Mercator projection and it’s real size (it’s only about 1/4 of the apparent size). Your email address will not be published. You already know that our world, planet earth is a globe. Select two projections: Projection No. Projection Constants. 2: Mode: [ Info ] Simple Expert . //this function is called from the javascript from within the iframe after the contents of iframe are loaded (and after an additional 150ms delay) How many Americans have contracted Coronavirus? c. Direct Transformation (Φ,λ to N,E). My son has also remarked that Greenland is very big. World Population Distribution by Latitude and Longitude, Scaling the physical size of States in the US to reflect population size (animation), Sizing the States Based On Electoral Votes. General Notation and Definitions. In the Mercator projection it looks almost the size of Africa. Background. Mercator projection) and the other was the actual area. The mercator projection is a commonly used projection on computer maps because it has perpendicular latitude and longitude lines (forming rectangles). Map Projections & What They Say About You. Many feel that these discrepancies reflect racism and prejudice against underprivileged and developing countries. Projection Selection. Subscribe to receive email notifications of new content. You can fit the USA, India, Europe, and China into Africa and still have space for Liberia and Japan. Is it fair to call it “real”? Antwort 1: Oh gute Soße nein. This next graph shows each country plotted with their actual land area and apparent land area as shown on a Mercator projection. While it’s well known that the mercator projection distorts the world, the maps here show very clearly by how much. Start with a sphere or ellipsoid because that is the true form of the Earth. Hover or click on a country to see how much it shrinks from the Mercator projection size. The Mercator projection (/ m ər ˈ k eɪ t ər /) is a cylindrical map projection presented by Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. En annan fråga om "Mercator har fel". How this “globe to flat” surface conversion was d… Esto de partida es un problema imposible de resolver, así que hay que ir dando pasos para simplificarlo. May I use your images on Quora? I try to plot some cities on my map of France, all points are here but not exactly where they should be see picture . Have you ever looked at the World Atlas and wondered how some countries got so big and others are so tiny? } Klassische Mercator-Projektion: Die Regionen in Polnähe sind viel grösser als jene in Äquatornähe. Only a globe “works.” A heading selected on a Mercator projection will be wrong unless it’s due east, west, north, or south. e. … Central Cylindrical vs. Mercator. The map above shows the distortion in sizes of countries due to the mercator projection. El primero de ellos es asimilar la tierra a una esfera, sí sabemos que la tierra es redonda, pero no es una esfera perfecta ni mucho menos. mercatorprojektion vs real. This is why we tend to think of places like Greenland as much larger than they actually are. The new coordinates needed to draw the “real size” of the countries are derived by calculating the distance between the center of the country and each of the coordinates in the country’s shapefile. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Based on this post Convert lat/lon to pixel coordinate?, that works fine with a real Mercator projection. Or: → Selection by thumbnail → Select from list. That was awesome! document.getElementById('sizescatter').contentWindow.location.reload(); This map's grid is rectangular and lines of latitude and longitude are parallel throughout. Areas far from the equator are distorted in terms of their distances and are shown much larger than they actually are. It is a logarithmic plot showing many different orders of magnitude in country size. As it shows, Greenland is the country that has the largest percent difference between its apparent size in a Mercator projection and it’s real size (it’s only about 1/4 of the apparent size). David, If you look at the Map, Germany is dead centre, (map created by a German Cartographer, so the equator is in the bottom third of the map. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. This means that a 1,000 meter distance measured anywhere within a UTM zone will be no worse than + or - 1 meter off. For those who wonder why the northern hemisphere shrinks so much, the equator runs through Borneo, which is low down on the map; at the top of the bottom third of the map. Fifty-nine variations on this projection are used to minimize distortion in the other 59 UTM zones. Have you ever wondered how many of those tiny countries could be fit into those big countries? function resizemercatormap(){ As a result the tops (northern ends) of countries will shrink more than the bottoms (southern ends) of countries in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere. The Mercator projection has been used as a template for world maps since 1569. Projection Selection. Svar 1: Kära nån. The Mercator projection was developed in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator as a navigational tool. Van Gogh As Drawn By A Traveling Salesman, Visualizing the Variation in Sunlight by Latitude and Time of Year, Post-Retirement Calculator: Will My Money Survive Early Retirement? One of the best alternatives to the Mercator projection was presented in 1974 at a conference in Germany by Dr. Arno Peters, who claimed he invented it … See the Peters Projection Map or the Hobo-Dyer, with the equator in the MIDDLE of the map in order to give an accurate representation. I calculated the area in two ways, one assuming latitude and longitude are rectangular coordinates (i.e. I remember as a child thinking that Alaska was as large as 1/2 of the continental US. ss.height = ss.contentWindow.document.body.scrollHeight+20+"px"; "; Thank you very much. For many people, the Earth as they know it is heavily informed by the Mercator projection – a tool used for nautical navigation that eventually became the world’s most widely recognized map. TRANSVERSE MERCATOR AND LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC MAP PROJECTION FUNCTIONS Alan Vonderohe (February 2020) Contents 1. This is incorrect because as you move towards the poles the distances between longitude lines decreases. It was inspired by a similar animation that I saw on reddit and decided I wanted to try to build the same thing. mobilewarn(); I was wondering where you were able to find coordinate points as used in the Mercator map projection to make those calculations. The further you go away from the equator, the worse the error. In the previous version of this animation, I calculated the latitude and longitude coordinates for the outline of the “real” size by modifying the original latitude and longitude by the ratio of these two areas to draw the new smaller, “real” country size. 4. It would not be the shortest route – for that you would follow a great circle but that does involve adjusting your compass bearing as you progress so you need to know where you are. And Russia is the country with the largest absolute difference between these two sizes. reloadiframes(); Um Winkeltreue zu erreichen, muss ein solches Flächenelement daher in Achsrichtung um denselben Faktor vergrößert werden. The further the countries are from the 1:1 line the greater the overestimate of their size from the Mercator (also color coded to be red). Das Problem: Auf dieser Karte wird das Verhältnis der Länder zueinander verzerrt – und das in keinem geringen Ausmaß, wie diese animierte Karte veranschaulicht. Learn how your comment data is processed. } The result is a conformal projection that does not maintain true directions. Die Erdoberfläche ist in erster Näherung eine Kugeloberfläche, die nicht verzerrungsfrei auf eine ebene Karte abgebildet werden kann. The most impressive demonstration of this issue I’ve ever come across. Der Gall Peters ist möglicherweise fast so schlecht wie die Mercator-Projektion. A great tool for educators. Der Bereich bleibt dem Leben treu, jedoch auf Kosten von Form, Entfernung und den meisten anderen Faktoren. mm2 = document.getElementById('mercatormap'); mercator map vs peters projektion. This distortion gets exponentially worse as you approach the poles. The central meridian is placed in the center of the region of interest. With any map projection style, the big challenge lies in depicting a spherical object as a 2D graphic. Your email address will not be published. resizemercatormap(); El gran problema con el que se enfrentan los cartógrafos al hacer mapas es como presentar en una superficie plana de dos dimensiones un elemento, la Tierra, que tiene tres dimensiones. You can find them in geojson format by googling “geojson countries”. mobilewarn(); Or: → Selection by thumbnail → Select from list. 1: Projection No. Your email address will not be published. Later, however, I learned that while it is the largest state, it is actually only about 1/5 the size of the lower 48 states. function reloadiframes(){ Let’s first address the elephant in the room. It is three times the size of North America, despite the fact that in the Mercator Map, North America looks larger. Mercator’s Rise to the Top. document.getElementById('mobilewarning').innerHTML="On mobile devices, visualizations are best viewed in landscape mode. Most countries lie north of the equator (which is south of the wide part of Africa and south of India). This is why Greenland, Russia and Canada shrink so much in height and width in the animation, they are fairly high in latitude in the Northern Hemisphere. mercator map vs peters projektion. If you're thinking of a world map, you're probably thinking about the Mercator projection, which flattens the globe into a rectangular presentation — and in the process, severely distorts the size of areas closer to the poles. Is Greenland really as big as all of Africa? With the UTM Zone, things will be very accurate or it supposed to be accurate for that particular zone, in your case UTM Zone 15N. } else { }, 150); Transverse Mercator Projections (After Stem (1989)). Animating the Mercator projection to the true size of each country in relation to all the others. document.getElementById('mercatormap').contentWindow.location.reload(); Data and tools: This visualization was made using the Leafletjs javascript mapping library and country shapefiles (converted to geojson). Ellipsoid Constants. ss = document.getElementById('sizescatter'); If a navigator wishes to sail from Spain to the West Indies using this map, all they have to do is draw a line between the two points. Ein weiteres Unterscheidungsmerkmal "echter" Projektionen liegt darin, ob die Projektionsfläche den Erdkörper berührt (tangent case) oder schneidet (secant case).Um die Abbildungsqualität bei der Darstellung größerer Gebiete zu erhöhen, lässt man den Projektionskörper die Erdoberfläche durchdringen (schneiden). Flatten each one of these zones.What’s the result?It’s the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection! Required fields are marked *. Required fields are marked *. Loved your maps. The shrinkage is a function of latitude and the confusion stems from the fact that the equator isn’t shown on the map. The … Africa. The table also shows the top 10 countries whose size is overestimated (and the difference in land area in square kilometers or as a percentage reduction from the size in the Mercator projection). Are there set points for each location like in traditional latitude and longitude or do they change? What I think going on is that when using Web Mercator projection it gets really distorted closer to the poles (north, and south), and its also projecting the entire planet. Any Mercator map you've ever seen must cut off the top/bottom edges at some arbitrary point. You may be surprised at what you find! The transverse Mercator projection, also known as the Gauss-Krüger projection, is similar to Mercator except that the cylinder touches the sphere or ellipsoid along a meridian instead of the equator. It is formed by projecting the globe onto a cylinder A variant of the was adopted by Google maps, which helped establish it as the informal standard for web-based maps (although Google maps now also uses a globe view, instead of a map projection when zooming out to a very wide view). a. Projection-Specific Notation. Pressing on the button animates the country ‘shrinking’ to its actual size or ‘growing’ to the size shown on the mercator projection. Actually Mercator was a navigator and his map works for navigation, other projections don’t do that. David, that is because when two thirds of the map is allocated to the northern hemisphere (see where the equator is, two thirds of the way down) and only one third to the southern hemisphere, then northern hemisphere countries are over-sized (hugely towards the top of the map) – hence this accurate representation of “shrinkage” when you represent them accurate to surface area. I am an Indian philosopher and and conducts talk sessions, for any help contact me via my mail address. Modeled and animated by Grafonaut. The Transverse Mercator projection illustrated above (Figure 2.22.2) minimizes distortion within UTM zone 30. Countries close to the equator barely change, whereas countries further north shrink dramatically. Peel it like an orange evenly into sixty segments called “zones”. function mobilewarn(){ Canada and the USA segments fit together for me. All headings are correct on Mercator projection. Mercator vs. Miller. Have you ever considered how these countries and landscapes on a globe were marked up in a two-dimensional map? I think it projecting particular zone vs. entire planet. La visión esférica de las imágenes desde el e… As you move towards the poles on a globe, the distance between longitude lines decreases as a function (cosine) of latitude. 2. Visualizing Longevity Risk, Greenhouse gas emissions from airplane flights, The 4% Rule, Trinity Study and Safe Withdrawal Rates Calculator, When Is Purchase And Sale Agreement Signed, What Is Our Agreement About What To Do With The Exceptions To The Law Of Demand, What Is An Agreement How It Will Be Classified, What Are The Other Rules In Subject Verb Agreement. mobilewarn(); } Of course Mercator doesn’t “work for navigation” in the general sense. There was a school-wide renouncement of outdated colonialist maps and south-up maps (like the ones they definitely 100% use in Australia) were hung up across the northern hemisphere. Bei der Mercator-Projektion wird um die Erde ein gedachter Zylinder gelegt, der diese entlang eines Großkreises berührt oder in zwei Kreisen beiderseits dieses Großkreises schneidet. 3. It became the standard map projection for navigation because it is unique in representing north as up and south as down everywhere while preserving local directions and shapes. I’m assuming it’s accurate based purely on area (sqkm) based around a centroid; however, when I visually compare the northern border of the US with the southern border of Canada in the “real” view, it’s clear they don’t fit together. Making Sense Of The World, One Map At A Time. In reality, Africa is actually HUGE! document.getElementById('mobilewarning').innerHTML=""; Dennoch wurden weiterhin häufig die überlieferten Karten mit der Mercator-Projektion genutzt. mm.height = mm.contentWindow.document.body.scrollHeight+20+"px"; In this calculation, we create a new set of coordinates by calculating the distance between the center of the polygon and each set of coordinates and change the coordinates to reflect the shrinking of distance between longitude lines as you head towards the poles. I'm facing a problem with an svg map from openstreet map, wich use the "Google Mercator projection with simplification on grid(1000)". The Mercator projection is infamous for its distortion at high latitudes. The Mercator map was designed as an aid to navigators with straight lines, loxodromes or rhumb lines—representing lines of constant compass bearing—that are perfect for "true" direction. Your efforts counts and respect from my side. In every case, distortion is no greater than 1 part in 1,000. This is the original graph that keeps the shape of the countries exactly the same and just scales the size. The map is thereby conformal. mercatorprojektion vs real. Schneidende Projektionen (in normaler Lage) Berührung vs. Schnitt. Shouldn’t it be distributed equally north and south? if (w<600){ 2: Mode: [ Info ] Simple Expert . I’m wondering how this is scaled between Mercator and Real. Drag and drop countries around the map to compare their relative size. Mercator selbst hatte klargestellt, dass seine 1569 ausdrücklich und ausschließlich ad usum navigantium („zum Gebrauch der Seefahrer“) veröffentlichte Projektion sich für geographische Kartenwerke nicht eignete; in seinem umfangreichen Atlas von 1595 hat er sie daher nicht verwendet. window.addEventListener("orientationchange", function() { Your email address will not be published. The maps are all the work of climate data scientist @neilrkaye. Unsere heutige Weltkarte geht auf den Belgier Gerhard Mercator zurück, der 1569 die noch immer gebräuchliche zweidimensionale Projektion des Erdballs entwickelte, die als „Mercator-Projektion“ bekannt wurde. If you’re starting out from 51º N—the latitude of Flanders, where Mercator was from—a Mercator-derived course from Bruges to Edinburgh could be so far off that you’d miss the UK entirely. Following a fixed compass bearing is only the shortest route if heading due north,south, east or west. Especially that gif which scales down the distortion due to Meractor projection. Foi elaborada no século XVI com a expansão marítima europeia. Map found via reddit, click for larger version While it's well known that the mercator projection distorts the world, the maps here show very clearly by how much. And Russia is the country with the largest absolute difference between these two sizes. In a mercator projection, the longitude lines are shown as equi-distant regardless of latitude. It shows Africa as being smaller than it is . In real life, it's more like the size of Madagascar, just so that you see how ridiculously inaccurate Mercator is when it comes to sizes, specially for regions near the poles. These geojson polygons are plotted here using the Mercator projection using the leaflet javascript library. Select two projections: Projection No. } Mercator projection, type of map projection introduced in 1569 by Gerardus Mercator.It is often described as a cylindrical projection, but it must be derived mathematically.The meridians are equally spaced parallel vertical lines, and the parallels of latitude are parallel horizontal straight lines that are spaced farther and farther apart as their distance from the Equator increases. }, false); Von der Zylinderachse aus kann jeder Punkt des Globus geometrisch auf eine Linie projiziert werden, die senkrecht zu diesem Großkreis liegt. setTimeout(function (){ Finally the map gives a bar graph to show the relative size of the world’s largest countries: As a retired map reader, planner, totally amazing and wonderfully interesting, Please show real map not minimized, how they look from space, all connectted. Don’t understand why nearly all of the shrinkage is north of the equator. b. If you followed a constant compass bearing from Bruges to Edinburgh it would be a straight line on a Mercator map and if you could keep to that exact bearing it would get you exactly there. As long as you give credit back should be fine. Pero empecemos por el principio. Video as part of a course by Emarin Norway. Most maps are very distorted to the Northern Hemisphere. 1: Projection No. And while it is very big, it’s nowhere near the size of the continent of Africa. The ‘outlines’ of all the countries is a series of points, which are specified as latitude and longitude coordinates. mm2.height = mm2.contentWindow.document.body.scrollHeight+20+"px"; d. Inverse Transformation (N,E to Φ,λ). mm = document.getElementById('mercatormap2'); Um die Lage in Achsrichtung zu bestimmen, muss die Vergrößerung über die Strecke von der Berührungslinie bis zum zu projizierenden Punkt rechnerisch integriert werden. I have. The students applauded and all subscribed to r/mapporn[1] that day and accepted the Peirce Quincuncial projection as the coolest projection ever. Countries close to the equator barely change, whereas countries further north shrink dramatically. I recalculated the latitude and longitude coordinates so that the mercator projection would show the correct sizes.

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